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The solemn invocation is a formula more usually found in Continental diplomas. This charter does not contain an address or salutation, as is generally found in English charters, nor does it contain a notification clause in one of the standard formulae. The body of the text states baldly that William is confirming what his father has granted. The text then contains a fair amount of persiflage concerning William's ancestors and the great victory of Hastings, before getting down to the details of the business in hand.

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Forged charter of Battle Abbey, mid 12th century. (British Library, Egerton Charter 2211). All images by permission of the British Library.

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Medieval Writing
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